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Flouride references

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1. Maurer JY, Cheng MC, Boysen BG, Anderson RL. Two-year carcinogenicity study of sodium fluoride in rats. Journal, National Cancer Institute 82 111811261990. [Found significant dose-related increase in osteosarcoma incident in male rats, in addition, found fluoride correlation with thyroid follicular cell adenomas, and a rare type of liver cancer.]

2. Hoover RN, Devesa S, Cantor K, Fraurneni JF Jr. Time trends for bone and joint cancers and osteosarcomas in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program, National Cancer Institute. In: Review of Fluoride: Benefits and Risks, Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on Fluoride of the Committee to Coordinate Environmental Health and Related Programs. US Public Health Service, 1991 pp F 1 -177. [Found higher incidence of bone cancer in males 20 and under in fluoridated vs non-fluoridated area. Did not control for halo effect unfortunately.]

3. Cohn PD. A brief report on the association of drinking water fluoridation and the incidence of osteosarcoma among young males. New Jersey Department of Health, Trenton NJ November 8 1992. [While Cohn could not eliminate other sources of carcenogens, he found a clear and convincing association and correlation with water fluoridation and the incidence of osteosarcoma. Quote directly from study: "Thus it can be seen that, for these populations, the chance of osteosarcoma for males age 10-19 years was 6.9 times higher in the fluoridated municipalities."]

No or scant evidence of protection from Fluoridation or Fluoride exposure in dental carries reduction:

1. Hildebolt CF, Elvin-Lewis H, Molnar S et al. Caries prevalences among geochemical regions of Missouri. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 78 79-92 1989.

2. Yiamouyiannis J A. Water fluoridation and tooth decay results from the 1986- 1987 national survey of US schoolchildren. Fluoride 23 55-67 1990

3. Brunelle JA, Carlos JP. Recent trends in dental caries in US children and the effect of water fluoridation. Journal of Dental research 69 (Special Issue) 7237281990.

  4. Attwood D, Blinkhorn AS. Dental health in school children 5 years after water fluoridation ceased in south-west. Scotland. Dent J. 1991 Feb;41(1):43-8.[No evidence that removing the fluoride affects dental carries levels.]

5. Kobayashi S, Kawasaki K, Takagi O, Nakamura M, Fujii N, Shinzato M, Maki Y, Takaesu Y. Caries experience in subjects 18-22 years of age after 13 years' discontinued water fluoridation in Okinawa. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1992 Apr;20(2):81-3. [No evidence of increase in dental carries after 13 years of fluoridation being ceased.]

6. Kalsbeek H, Kwant GW, Groeneveld A, Dirks OB, van Eck AA, Theuns HM. Caries experience of 15-year-old children in The Netherlands after discontinuation of water fluoridation. Caries Res. 1993;27(3):201-5. [More of the same, no statistically signicant evidence of increase in dental carries when fluoridation ceases.]

7. Seppa L, Karkkainen S, Hausen H. Caries frequency in permanent teeth before and after discontinuation of water fluoridation in Kuopio, Finland. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1998 Aug;26(4):256-62. [Again, evidence did not favor fluoridation looking at before addition, during addition, and after removal of fluoride].

8. Kunzel W, Fischer T. Caries prevalence after cessation of water fluoridation in La Salud, Cuba. Caries Res. 2000 Jan-Feb;34(1):20-5. [Found a slight decrease in carried after fluoridation was ceased.]

9. Burt BA, Keels MA, Heller KE. The effects of a break in water fluoridation on the development of dental caries and fluorosis. J Dent Res. 2000 Feb;79(2):761-9. [Looked at how long it takes for fluorsis damage to go away in teeth, and did not find an increase in dental carries with fluoride removal.]

10. Jackson RD, Kelly SA, Katz BP, Hull JR, Stookey GK. Dental fluorosis and caries prevalence in children residing in communities with different levels of fluoride in the water. J Public Health Dent. 1995 Spring;55(2):79-84. [Did not find fluoride added to water beneficial for carries prevention in comparison of waters with varying fluoride levels both natural and "optimized"].

11. Bratthall D, Hansel Petersson G, Sundberg H. (1996) Reasons for the caries decline. What do the experts believe? Euro J Oral Sci 104:416-422 [Review of lit. Finds no correlation between fluoridation and dental carries decline.]

12. Birkeland JM, Haugejorden O, Ramm Von Der Fehr F. Some factors associated with the caries decline among norwegian children and adolescents: age-specific and cohort analyses. Caries Res. 2000 Mar-Apr;34(2):109-16.[Finds only a small benefit in teen years, and no benefit and actual counter productive effects in other age groups.]

Fluoride and bone fracture:
1. Jacobsen SJ, Goldberg J, Miles TP, Brody JA, Stiers W, Rimm AA. Regional variation in the incidence of hip fracture. US white women aged 65 years and older. JAMA. 1990 Jul 25;264(4):500-2.[JAMA major enough for you?]

2. Sowers MF, Clark MK, Jannausch ML, Wallace RB. A prospective study of bone mineral content and fracture in communities with fluoride exposure. Am J Epidemiol. 1991 Apr 1;133(7):649-60.

3. Cooper C, Wickham CA, Barker DJ, Jacobsen SJ. Water fluoridation and hip fracture. JAMA. 1991 Jul 24-31;266(4):513-4.

4. Danielson C, Lyon JL, Egger M, Goodenough GK. Hip fractures and fluoridation in Utah's elderly population. JAMA. 1992 Aug 12;268(6):746-8.

5. Jacobsen SJ, Goldberg J, Cooper C, Lockwood SA. The association between water fluoridation and hip fracture among white women and men aged 65 years and older. A national ecologic study. Ann Epidemiol. 1992 Sep;2(5):617-26

6. Jacqmin-Gadda H, Commenges D, Dartigues JF. Fluorine concentration in drinking water and fractures in the elderly. JAMA. 1995 Mar 8;273(10):775-6.

7. Hillier S, Inskip H, Coggon D, Cooper C. (1996) Water fluoridation and osteoporotic fracture. Community Dent Health Suppl 2:63-8

8. Karagas MR, Baron JA, Barrett JA, Jacobsen SJ. Patterns of fracture among the United States elderly: geographic and fluoride effects. Ann Epidemiol. 1996 May;6(3):209-16.

9. Papadimitropoulos EA, Coyte PC, Josse RG, Greenwood CE. Current and projected rates of hip fracture in Canada. CMAJ. 1997 Nov 15;157(10):1357-63.

10. Feskanich D, Owusu W, Hunter DJ, Willett W, Ascherio A, Spiegelman D, Morris S, Spate VL, Colditz G. Use of toenail fluoride levels as an indicator for the risk of hip and forearm fractures in women. Epidemiology. 1998 Jul;9(4):412-6.

11. Allolio B, Lehmann R. Drinking water fluoridation and Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 1999;107(1):12-20.

12. Kurttio P, Gustavsson N, Vartiainen T, Pekkanen J. Exposure to natural fluoride in well water and hip fracture: a cohort analysis in Finland. Am J Epidemiol. 1999 Oct 15;150(8):817-24.

13. Hillier S, Cooper C, Kellingray S, Russell G, Hughes H, Coggon D. Fluoride in drinking water and risk of hip fracture in the UK: a case-control study. Lancet. 2000 Jan 22;355(9200):265-9. [You wanted Lancet]

Fluoride and Neurotoxic effects:

1. Hu YH, Wu SS. Fluoride in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with fluorosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1988 Dec;51(12):1591-3.

2.Holland, R.I. Fluoride inhibition of protein synthesis. Cell Biol. Int. Rep. 1979 3:701-705

3. Jope RS. Modulation of phosphoinositide hydrolysis by NaF and aluminum in rat cortical slices. J. Neurochem. 1988 51:1731-1736.

4. Kay AR, Miles R, Wong RKS. Intracellular fluoride alters the kinetic properties of calcium currents facilitating the investigation of synaptic events in hippocampal neurons. J. Neurosci. 1986 6: 2915-2920.

5. Varner JA, Jensen KF Isaacson RL. Toxin-induced blood vessel inclusions caused by the chronic administration of aluminum and sodium fluoride and their implications for dementia. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1997 825: 152-166.

6. Mullenix PJ, Denbesten PK, Schunior A, Kernan WJ. Neurotoxicity of sodium fluoride in rats. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1995 Mar-Apr;17(2):169-77. [This is one of the clearest and most convincing demonstrations of the toxic effects of fluoride ever demonstrated.]

7. Varner JA, Jensen KF, Horvath W, Isaacson RL. Chronic administration of aluminum-fluoride or sodium-fluoride to rats in drinking water: alterations in neuronal and cerebrovascular integrity. Brain Res. 1998 Feb 16;784(1-2):284-98.

8. Varner JA, Horvath WJ, Huie CW, Naslund HR, Isaacson RL. Chronic aluminum fluoride administration. I. Behavioral observations. Behav Neural Biol. 1994 May;61(3):233-41.

9. Zhao LB, Liang GH, Zhang DN, Wu XR. Effect of high fluoride water supply on children's intelligence. Fluoride 1996 29:190-192.

10. Li, XS, Zhi JL, RO. Effect of fluoride exposure on intelligence in children. Fluoride 1995 28(4):189-192.

11. Luke JA. Effect of fluoride on the physiology of the pineal gland. CariesResearch 1994 28:204.
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