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R.I.P. Commodore 1954-1994

A look at an innovative computer industry pioneer, whose achievements have been largely forgotten

Tom R. Halfhill / Byte magazine August 1994

Obituaries customarily focus on the deceased's accomplishments, not the unpleasant details of the demise. That's especially true when the demise hints strongly of self-neglect tantamount to suicide, and nobody can find a note that offers some final explanation.

There will be no such note from Commodore, and it would take a book to explain why this once-great computer company lies cold on its deathbed. But Commodore deserves a eulogy, because its role as an industry pioneer has been largely forgotten or ignored by revisionist historians who claim that everything started with Apple or IBM. Commodore's passing also recalls an era when conformity to standards wasn't the yardstick by which all innovation was measured.

In the 1970s and early 1980s, when Commodore peaked as a billion-dollar company, the young computer industry wasn't dominated by standards that dictated design parameters. Engineers had much more latitude to explore new directions. Users tended to be hobbyists who prized the latest technology over backward compatibility. As a result, the market tolerated a wild proliferation of computers based on many different processors, architectures, and operating systems.

Commodore was at the forefront of this revolution. In 1977, the first three consumer-ready personal computers appeared: the Apple II, the Tandy TRS-80, and the Commodore PET (Personal Electronic Transactor). Chuck Peddle, who designed the PET, isn't as famous as Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs, the founders of Apple. But his distinctive computer with a built-in monitor, tape drive, and trapezoidal case was a bargain at $795. It established Commodore as a major player.

The soul of Commodore was Jack Tramiel, an Auschwitz survivor who founded the company as a typewriter-repair service in 1954. Tramiel was an aggressive businessman who did not shy away from price wars with unwary competitors. His slogan was "computers for the masses, not the classes."

In what may be Commodore's most lasting legacy, Tramiel drove his engineers to make computers that anyone could afford. This was years before PC clones arrived. More than anyone else, Tramiel is responsible for our expectation that computer technology should keep getting cheaper and better. While shortsighted critics kept asking what these machines were good for, Commodore introduced millions of people to personal computing. Today, I keep running into those earliest adopters at leading technology companies.

Commodore's VIC-20, introduced in 1981, was the first color computer that cost under $300. VIC-20 production hit 9000 units per day--a run rate that's enviable now, and was phenomenal back then. Next came the Commodore 64 (1982), almost certainly the best-selling computer model of all time. Ex-Commodorian Andy Finkel estimates that sales totaled between 17 and 22 million units. That's more than all the Macs put together, and it dwarfs IBM's top-selling systems, the PC and the AT.

Commodore made significant technological contributions as well. The 64 was the first computer with a synthesizer chip (the Sound Interface Device, designed by Bob Yannes). The SX-64 (1983) was the first color portable, and the Plus/4 (1984) had integrated software in ROM.

But Commodore's high point was the Amiga 1000 (1985). The Amiga was so far ahead of its time that almost nobody--including Commodore's marketing department--could fully articulate what it was all about. Today, it's obvious the Amiga was the first multimedia computer, but in those days it was derided as a game machine because few people grasped the importance of advanced graphics, sound, and video. Nine years later, vendors are still struggling to make systems that work like 1985 Amigas.

At a time when PC users thought 16-color EGA was hot stuff, the Amiga could display 4096 colors and had custom chips for accelerated video. It had built-in video outputs for TVs and VCRs, still a pricey option on most of today's systems. It had four-voice, sampled stereo sound and was the first computer with built-in speech synthesis and text-to-speech conversion. And it's still the only system that can display multiple screens at different resolutions on a single monitor.

Even more amazing was the Amiga's operating system, which was designed by Carl Sassenrath. From the outset, it had preemptive multitasking, messaging, scripting, a GUI, and multitasking command-line consoles. Today's Windows and Mac users are still waiting for some of those features. On top of that, it ran on a $1200 machine with only 256 KB of RAM.

We may never see another breakthrough computer like the Amiga. I value my software investment as much as anyone, but I realize it comes at a price. Technology that breaks clean with the past is increasingly rare, and rogue companies like Commodore that thrived in the frontier days just don't seem to fit anymore.

Tech stuff
CPU: 6510, 0.985 MHz (PAL) and 1.02 MHz (NTSC).
ROM: 20 Kbytes.
RAM: 64 Kbytes.
Sound: SID 6581, 3 channels of lovely sound. The chip is very impressing for it's time.
Display: VIC-II, 16 colours, text resolution at 40 x 25. Graphics resolution at 320 x 200.
Storage: Tape interface or a 5 1/4" floppy drive that can store 170k/side.
Keyboard: Non-standard ASCII, 66 keys.
Cartridge Expansion slot.
`User' connector.
Two joystick ports.
TV connector (RF modulator, also transmits audio to the TV).
RGB/composite monitor connector (includes sound output).
Serial port for connecting printers and floppy drives.

The 6581 Sound Interface Device (SID) is a single-chip, 3-voice electronic music synthesizer/sound effects generator compatible with the 65XX and similar microprocessor families. SID provides wide-range, high-resolution control of pitch (frequency), tone color (harmonic content), and dynamics (volume). Specialized control circuitry minimizes software overhead, facilitating use in arcade/home video games and low-cost musical instruments. Please note that the SID is not a FM-based synthesizer, like the Yamaha OPL series!!

The Display
Handled by the VIC-II chip (the enhanced version of the VIC, used on the Commodore VIC-20). 16 colours, text resolution at 40 x 25. Graphics resolution is 320 x 200. Smooth hardware-supported sprites with collision control, hardware scrolling, etc.
"320 x 200 is only in `hires' mode, where the system is restricted to 2 colours from the 16-colour palette per 8x8 block. This comes from a single colour map whose location can be user-defined." "An extra mode called `multicolour' can do 4 colours per 8x8 block using bitpairs (but this halves the horizontal graphics resolution i.e. double length pixels).
There are at least three additional video modes that can be addressed by multiplexing the VIC-II chip, but these are timing-critical and modes that work well with PAL may not work on NTSC (and vice versa). Some of these extra modes include FLI, IFLI, MCI and IMAP (IMAP being one of the few that is both PAL and NTSC compatible without modifications in the display routine). These routines are very CPU-intensive, and naturally aren't built into the VIC-II. Their enhancements vary, but most are able to break the number-of- colours-per-8x8-cell requirement.
You can read more about graphic modes in "A Brief Description Of Graphic Modes" under the Gallery section of area64


The speed of the tape drives (pic to the right) is 300 baud.

The floppy drives (1541, the pic at the top of the page) can only read one side at the time (one side is 170Kb) (There are also 3.5" 1.66Mb disks and HD's>1Gb which still is available for order)
"On the C64, the tape port (and drive)'s actual read rate is 1100-1200 baud. Data is written twice, and is accompanied by a CRC checksum code. This slows down the process to give or take 300 baud. CBM was the first (and last) computer company to have this feature in tape drives. This process has a drawback, however, and that is that the whole process is very intensive, and so all unnecessary functions are temporarily terminated. There no longer is a screen write, sound write, keyboard read (limited solely to the scan of the RUN/STOP key), and the jiffy clock (TI; TI$) is also stopped, which can wreck a program's tape load execution. Because of this, the more expensive disk drives became popular, and contrary to popular belief, they weren't popular only because of faster loading times for more data... even though that should have been the reason."
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Comfortably Anonymous
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